Proxy servers, firewalls, message digest algorithms and digital signatures, digital certificates, kerberos, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Secure HTTP (S-HTTP), Secure Electronic Transactions (SET) and Secure Transaction Technology (SST), Java security, and ActiveX security.
It is an approach to manage privileges. The SQL standard supports DAC through the GRANT and REVOKE commands. The GRANT command gives privileges to users, and the REVOKE command takes away privileges.
Common known threats are:
We consider database security in relation to the following situations:
1. Shared Lock When a shared lock is applied on data item, other transactions can only read the item, but can't write into it. 2. Exclusive Lock When an exclusive lock is applied on data item, other transactions can't read or write into the data item.